Tobacco, eating 'halal' meat (a way of slaughtering in which the animal's throat is slit open and it is left to bleed before being slaughtered), fornication and adultery were forbidden. Childhood & Early Life Guru Gobind Singh was born on 22 December 1666 in Patna, India, to Guru Tegh Bahadur and his wife Gujri. Guru Gobind Singh ([gʊɾuː goːbɪn̯d̯ᵊ sɪ́ŋgᵊ])(22 December 1666 – 7 October 1708),[2][7] born Gobind Rai, was the tenth Sikh Guru, a spiritual master, warrior, poet and philosopher. J Deol (2000), Sikh Religion, Culture and Ethnicity (Editors: AS Mandair, C Shackle, G Singh), Routledge. [4][34] Not shaving the head also meant not having to pay the taxes by Sikhs who lived in Delhi and other parts of the Mughal Empire. The period following the execution of Guru Tegh Bahadur – the father of Guru Gobind Singh, was a period where the Mughal Empire under Aurangzeb was an increasingly hostile enemy of the Sikh people. Named Gobind Rai at birth, he was the couple’s only child. [85] They gained access to the Guru and Jamshed Khan stabbed him with a fatal wound at Nanded. The Guru returned to the crowd without the volunteer, but with a bloody sword. List of places named after Guru Gobind Singh, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Sri Dasam Granth Sahib: Questions and Answers: The book on Sri Dasam Granth Sahib, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Guru_Gobind_Singh&oldid=988582092, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles having different image on Wikidata and Wikipedia, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 14 November 2020, at 01:21. His father was the 9th Guru of Sikhs and was on a preaching tour in Assam at the time of Gobind Rai’s birth. [citation needed] His two eldest sons, aged 13 and 17, were killed in the Battle of Chamkaur against the Mughal army. [29] He asked for another volunteer, and repeated the same process of returning from the tent without anyone and with a bloodied sword four more times. [31][32] The Khalsas also agreed to never interact with those who followed rivals or their successors. [33], He introduced ideas that indirectly challenged the discriminatory taxes imposed by Islamic authorities. [76] They believed that the religious Guru tradition of Sikhs had been corrupted by him, through the creation of a military order willing to resist the Imperial army. When all other means have failed, When his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur, was beheaded for refusing to convert to Islam,[8][9] Guru Gobind Singh was formally installed as the leader of the Sikhs at the age of nine, becoming the tenth and final human Sikh Guru. The grandparents of the tenth Guru were, the sixth Sikh Guru Guru Hargobind and Mata Nanaki. [69] After all of Guru Gobind Singh's children had been killed by the Mughal army and the battle of Muktsar, the Guru wrote a defiant letter in Persian to Aurangzeb, titled Zafarnama (literally, "epistle of victory"), a letter which the Sikh tradition considers important towards the end of the 19th century. [80], Guru Gobind Singh saw the war conduct of Aurangzeb and his army against his family and his people as a betrayal of a promise, unethical, unjust and impious. His birth name was Gobind Rai, and a shrine named Takht Sri Patna Harimandar Sahibmarks the site of the house where he was born and spent the first four years of his life. He was born in Patna on 22 December 1666, Bihar in the Sodhi Khatri family [20] while his father was visiting Bengal and Assam. [29], Guru Gobind Singh initiated the Five K's tradition of the Khalsa,[31], He also announced a code of discipline for Khalsa warriors. [83] The letter predicted that the Mughal Empire would soon end, because it persecutes, is full of abuse, falsehood and immorality. [5][84], Wazir Khan, a Muslim army commander and the Nawab of Sarhandh, against whose army the Guru had fought several wars,[6] commissioned two Afghans, Jamshed Khan and Wasil Beg, to follow the Guru's army as it moved for the meeting with Bahadur Shah, and then assassinate the Guru. His tradition has survived into the modern times, with initiated Sikh referred to as Khalsa Sikh, while those who do not get baptized referred to as Sahajdhari Sikhs. [55] Both Mughal administration and Aurangzeb's army had an active interest in Guru Gobind Singh. His youngest sons, aged 5 and 8, were tortured and then executed by burying them alive into a wall after they refused to convert to Islam, and Mata Gujri collapsed on hearing her grandsons' death, and died shortly after. [11][12][13], Among his notable contributions to Sikhism are founding the Sikh warrior community called Khalsa in 1699[4][14][15] and introducing the Five Ks, the five articles of faith that Khalsa Sikhs wear at all times. He called them the Panj Pyare and the first Khalsa in the Sikh tradition. [32] Guru Gobind Singh's significance to the Sikh tradition has been very important, as he institutionalized the Khalsa, resisted the ongoing persecution by the Mughal Empire, and continued "the defence of Sikhism and Hinduism against the Muslim assault of Aurangzeb". Of his father Guru Teg Bahadur the letter is spiritually rooted in Guru Gobind Singh also this. He stayed in Paonta, near the banks of river Yamuna, till 1685 access to the Guru returned the. 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