Limits on unit sizes and stocking density avoid intensive housing conditions, No routine prophylactic drug treatments-usually only individual animals which are actually ill are treated, and then are required to be treated, Homeopathic and/or Ayurvedic treatments are preferred to Allopathic, Animal health plans obligatory for each farm, to identify weaknesses and improvements required in the system for positive health. For chickens, modern rations produce about 0.5 kg (1 pound) of broiler on about 0.9 kg (2 pounds) of feed and a dozen eggs from 2 kg (4.5 pounds) of feed. Professor of Animal Husbandry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, 1941–74. Among the world’s agricultural industries, chicken breeding in the U.S. is one of the most advanced. Due to the aforementioned issues it is obvious that organically produced raw materials are going to cost more to buy than their conventional counterparts. All the ingredients used to feed the laying hen must be from certified organic sources. Once approved, a certificate will be issued stating that the eggs are certified organic. Test paper of mock test (VAS/VO/VS Exam 5.0) with answers and toppers, Eliminating Dog Mediated Rabies in India by 2030, Test paper of mock test (VAS/VO/VS Exam 4.0) with answers and toppers, Hens used to produce organic eggs  should not be fed rations containing meat by-products, such as meat and bone meal, A precautionary approach to health issues, Positive rather than reactive health management, A focus on the fundamental causes of health problems rather than the symptoms. Poultry are quite susceptible to a number of diseases; some of the more common are fowl typhoid, pullorum, fowl cholera, chronic respiratory disease, infectious sinusitis, infectious coryza, avian infectious hepatitis, infectious synovitis, bluecomb, Newcastle disease, fowl pox, avian leukosis complex, coccidiosis, blackhead, infectious laryngotracheitis, infectious bronchitis, and erysipelas. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Vitamins A, C, D, E, and K and all of the B vitamins are also required. High-quality and well-balanced protein sources produce a maximum amount of muscle, organ, skin, and feather growth. Poultry farming, raising of birds domestically or commercially, primarily for meat and eggs but also for feathers. To produce food of high quality in sufficient quantity, To interact in a constructive and life-enhancing way with natural systems and cycles, To consider the wider social and ecological impact of the organic, To encourage and enhance biological cycles within the farming system involving micro-organisms, soil flora, plants and animals, To maintain and increase the long-term fertility of soil, To maintain the genetic diversity of the production system and its surroundings, including the protection of plant and wildlife habitats, To use as far as possible renewable resources in locally organized production systems, To create a harmonious balance between crop production and animal husbandry. Antibiotics are widely used to stimulate appetite, control harmful bacteria, and prevent disease. Parasitic diseases of poultry, including hexamitiasis of turkeys, are caused by roundworms, tapeworms, lice, and mites. There are two regulations within the legislation that need to be considered. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Updates? Egg storage area holding eggs at 60 degrees F, Vaccination permitted against certain diseases may also be carried out. For a discussion of the food value and processing of poultry products, see egg and poultry processing. Large, shaded open spaces and controlled flock sizes. Poultry breeding is an outstanding example of the application of basic genetic principles of inbreeding and crossbreeding as well as of intensive mass selection to effect faster and cheaper gains in meat and maximum egg production for the egg-laying strains. Log in, For any type of query related to animal husbandry, you can ask us by clicking, If you want to write an article or share your experience related to animal husbandry with other farmers, write your article and email it to, If any student of veterinary science or veterinary doctor wishes to publish an article with us, then write your article and email at. Cages for egg-laying birds have been found to increase production, lower mortality, reduce cannibalism, lower feeding requirements, reduce diseases and parasites, improve culling, and reduce both space and labour requirements. Some form of pasture rotation (or a very large area provided) to maintain at least 30% plant cover. ... and the selection and mating operations modified to ensure improvement But this is possible only in well-established farms, requiring lot of technical expertise, and accurate mating and breeding rewards. Outdoor area providing five square feet per bird. It takes account of all aspects of the individual including stress, general well-being as well as physical symptoms. Again, modern methods of sanitation, prevention, and treatment provide excellent control. Feed constituting a major component of any animal production system and in the case of egg production, the major cost, it is vital that every aspect of the diet is correct in order to ensure optimum performance. Calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, potassium, sulfur, manganese, iron, copper, cobalt, magnesium, and zinc are all required. A carefully controlled environment that avoids crowding, chilling, overheating, or frightening is almost universal in poultry farming. Access to the outdoors when seasonally appropriate. Commercial poultry feeding is a highly perfected science that ensures a maximum intake of energy for growth and fat production. https://www.britannica.com/topic/poultry-farming, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations - Poultry Production. The birds must have access to free range or large open air runs and has contact with the natural ground. Intensive nutritional research and application, highly improved breeding stock, intelligent management, and scientific disease control have gone into the effort to give a modern broiler (meat chicken) of uniformly high quality produced at ever-lower cost. High-quality certifiable hay (either ground into feed or as bedding) keeps the yolk color dark. Poultry farming, raising of birds domestically or commercially, primarily for meat and eggs but also for feathers. Adequate ventilation to prevent ammonia build-up. Additionally, annual egg production per hen has increased from about 100 in 1910 to over 300 in the early 21st century. The ingredients must be clear and traceable. Poultry Breeding Principles of Breeding. Your email address will not be published. Generally it is accepted that mortality rates are likely to be higher in birds kept under range. Omissions? Poultry farming business has seen a lot of evolution in the past with the appearance of hybrid traits that is known for low feed consumption and fast growth rate. This article treats the principles and practices of poultry farming. The essential minerals produce bones and eggs, with about 3 to 4 percent of the live bird being composed of minerals and 10 percent of the egg. Single-comb White Leghorn hens housed for egg production in a multitiered layer house. Housing must allow for “reasonable liberty, normal socialization, maximum fresh air, day light and shelter from inclement weather conditions”. The feeding, watering, egg gathering, and cleaning operations are highly mechanized. This article treats the principles and practices of poultry farming. Do not feed kitchen scraps. In the event of treatment, birds must be withdrawn from organic production for a period of 90 days or twice the official waiting period, whichever is greater. 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principles of poultry farming

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